The One Hundred and Eight Names of the Exalted Jambhala

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos and the Sugatagarbha Translation Group

In the Indian Language [Sanskrit]: Ārya Jambhala Nāma Aṣṭaśataka (ārya-jambhala-nāma-aṣṭaśataka)

In the Tibetan Language: P’akpa Dzambhala’i Ts’en Gyatsagyaypa (‘phags-pa dzambha-la’i mtshan brgya-rtsa-brgyad-pa)

In the English Language: The One Hundred and Eight Names of the Exalted Jambhala (The Exalted Jambhala’s One Hundred and Eight Names)

 

HOMAGE TO THE EXALTED ONE WHO PROTECTS FROM HARM.

 

[The Yakṣa’s Question to Vajrapāṇi]

{The Yakṣa asked Vajrapāṇi, the Lord of Secrets:}

 

“Now then, the Yakṣa Who Lives in Isolated Places,

The One Finely Adorned with Golds,

The One Utterly Beautified by Precious Gems,

The One Similar to an Intensely Burning Fire

Is active in the Braided Realm;

However, deeply saluting at the two honored feet

Of the Lord of Secrets, the Holder of the Vajra,

I ask something which arose during deep meditative absorption:

 

‘O Conquering One, Sovereign Master of Yakṣas,

Lord Over All Collections of Secret Mantra,

One Revered by All Retainers of Gnosis Mantras,

One Bowed Down to by Gods and Demigods,

Striver in Taming the Inappropriate,

One Endowed with the Good Qualities of the Bodhisattva,

Protector Who Facilitates the Benefit of all Sentient Beings,

Retainer of the Secrets of All Buddhas:

 

As I wish to help sentient beings,

Out of compassion, with a dynamic mind,

For the sake of authentic complete Enlightenment,

I too generate the Mind of Awakening.

And yet, when I see those persons whose wealth is scarce,

And those whose merit is feeble,

I am distressed by intense sorrow, O Lord of Secrets.”

 

[Vajrapāṇi’s Response:]

 

These words were spoken by the Yakṣa,

And the Bhagavān, the secret Lord of Secrets,

Overpowered with compassion, spoke the following:

 

“Listen well of the Secret One, the Protecting One,

The Glorious Protector from Detriment,

The Activator of Benefit for All Sentient Beings,

The Eliminator of Poverty’s Affliction,

The Ruler of All Wealth: His One Hundred and Eight Names

Are imbued with positive potential,

Dispel the faults and destructiveness of poverty,

And were spoken of by supreme Victorious Ones

As numerous as sand-grains in the River Ganges.

 

When the Buddha Sūrya was verbally teaching the Dharma

In the realm known as ‘Hundred Light Beams’,

I also deeply listened to it:

That which dispels poverty and is imbued with positive potential;

And it is this, which, through my insight,

To you, O striver for the benefit of all sentient beings,

I shall teach effectively:

You should concentrate and listen intensely.”

 

[The Names]

 

Exalted Guru of Gods and Demigods,

One with Wisdom, One Reverent Toward the Dharma,

Embodiment of Compassion and Love, Stably Patient One,

One of Peaceful Faculties, One of Controlled Faculties,

Defeater of Evil with Virtue, Friendly One,

Gentle Accomplisher of All Aims,

Harmless One, Undeceiving One of Glory,

Lord of Treasuries, One Unconquerable by Others,

Sole Refuge of the Three Supreme Gems,

One Beheld by All Buddhas,

Protector of Treasures, Majestic One,

Continuously Giving One, Increaser of Wealth,

Source of Precious Things, Trainer of Living Beings,

Lord of Water, Bringer of Water,

Embodiment of Yakṣas Who Enjoy Water,

One Who Teaches Those Who Seek Treasures,

Mightiest Mountain of Gold,

One Who Frees from the Pain of Suffering,

Powerful One, Intensely Powerful One, Protector of Beings,

Ruler of Water, Cloud-Colored One,

Eye of the World, Life-Force of the World,

Sun, Moon, Enduring One,

Great King of Great Meaning,

One with Mongoose Living Strongly in Hand,

Youthful Lion, Paramount One,

The Great Yakṣa, One of Great Magical Power,

Master of Words, One of Smiling Countenance,

One Who Speaks Straightforwardly and Pleasantly,

The Desire Hook of the Brahmin,

Great One Who Accomplishes Benefit, One Who Is Worshiped Due to Accomplishing,

Retainer of Gnosis Mantras, One Who Rules with a Magical Wheel,

Kubera, Rider of Humans,

One with a Vase-Like Belly, Broad-Eyed One,

One with the Scent of Gods, One Swift as Mind,

Pervasive Lord Who is the Source of Happiness, Son of Manibhadra,

One Who Rejoices in Protecting Sentient Beings,

Form that Manifests All Desires and Needs, God of Mind,

Bearer of a Crown, Delighter of Families,

One with a Crown on the Left Side, One with Pearl in Hand,

Hundred-Handed One, Mighty One,

Master of the Eighth Level, Heavenly One,

One with Face of Full Moon Color,

Leader of the Hosts of Captains,

Stable Guardian, Merchant, One of Good Fortune,

Wish-Fulfilling Jewel, Efficacious Vase,

Magical Wishing Tree, Manager of Humans,

One Worthy of Offering’s Purpose, Chief,

Supreme Giver, Gnome, Pervasive Penetrator,

One Worthy of Refuge, Guardian of Auspiciousness,

One Well-Adorned with Garlands of Precious Things,

One Abiding on a Divine Lion-Throne,

Glorious Lord of Bodhisattvas,

Utmost Increaser, One of Inexhaustible Wealth,

One Imbued with the Skillful Power of Lion Strength,

Teacher Victorious Over the Three Worlds,

Leader of Merchants, Supreme One in the Family,

Epicenter of the Lotus, Undefeatable Victor,

And Great Ocean of Godly Pure Conduct.

 

[The Benefits of the Names]

 

These One Hundred and Eights Names that I have conveyed,

Of the greatness of the very embodiment of Protection from Detriment,

Act to subdue all negativity,

Clear away the disturbance of poverty,

Are the generator of abundance and good fortune,

Increase cattle, horses and wealth,

And eradicate negative planets, stars, constellations, dreams,

And bad omens;

 

Thus, whether in a forest, or perchance a village,

A hermitage or else a mountain too,

Wherever the adept reads it, there,

Battles, enemies and depression,

Snakes, fire, water, and the hosts of bandits and thieves,

Tigers, bears and great fears,

Oceans which are difficult or excruciating to traverse,

And humans shall come to be powerfully pacified.

 

Lords of fire, gods of water,

Lords of death, lords of demons, gods of wind,

Wealth-giving gods, the glorious Kubera,

The sons of Manibhadra and the Yakṣa General Five Games,

The pinnacle Yakṣas, Yakṣas of remote places,

And other gods and Yakṣas too,

Will, without distraction, day and night,

Serve to protect, with intense joy.

 

Wherever this is read,

Elephants, horses, cattle,

Various kinds of crops,

As well as fruit and flowers shall increase.

 

Human sickness and contagious illness,

And all those things which give rise to harm,

Will all be transformed into happiness and goodness,

And in particular there will be auspiciousness for children.

 

For those who do so, voracious ghosts, dragon elementals,

Parasitic goddesses, violent wraiths,

Sky-traversing fairies, centaur celestials,

And even demons will do no harm.

 

They will be freed from illness in its entirety,

And likewise be happy and endowed with wealth,

Prosperous with children, relatives,

Glory and charity.

 

They will arise in regal excellent family,

Be born amidst great resources,

Have long life and resplendence,

And be without illness and far from plagues.

 

In all their lifetimes, they will remember their rebirths,

Be quick learners and retain what they hear,

Be imbued with the qualities of the Bodhisattva,

And become good fortune itself.

 

Homage! Homage! Yakṣa Lord!

Lord of Secrets, I pay homage to you,

And to the striver in taming the inappropriate,

Vajrapāṇi, to you I bow.

 

One who is delightful and gentle in order to inspire sentient beings,

The renowned son of Manibhadra

Pacifies the sickness of poverty:

Its powerful impartment has thus been spoken well.

 

[The Benefits of the Mantra:]

 

A sublime accomplisher of aims, a secret Mantra,

I also offer here:

Through merely recollecting it,

Humans shall be liberated from poverty.

 

Others will not harm them, and they will be protected,

Enemies too will not overpower them;

They will have good fortune and opportunity,

And shall live on to a hundred.

 

Assuredly will they quickly obtain

Even the precious divine elephant,

And all those things worthy of sovereigns and sovereignty:

There is thus no doubt about the power of dominion, as well.

 

[The Mantra:]

NAMO RATNA TRAYĀYA NAMO MANIBHADRAYA/ MAHĀYAKṢA SENĀPATALE/ OṀ HRIṀ TRĀṀ/ KṢĀ JRĪṀ HRĪṀ HAṀ DIVYA RATNOU GAPARIŚANA/ ATAVAKA/ DEVA YAKṢA SAMAYA MANUSMARA/ HRĪḤ HŪṀ PHAṬ SVĀHĀ

[Tibetan pronunciation:

NAMO RATNA TRAYĀYA NAMO MANIBHADRAYA/ MAHĀYAKSHA SÉNĀPATALÉ/ OM HRING TRĀNG/ KSHĀ DZRĪNG HRĪNG HANG DIBYA RATNOU GAPARISHANA/ ATABAKA/ DÉWA YAKSHA SAMAYA MANUSMARA/ HRĪH HŪNG P’AY SŌHĀ]

THE ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHT NAMES OF JAMBHALA ARE COMPLETE.

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos during late December 2013 and early January 2014, in McLeod Ganj, Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Updated and revised in early August 2016.

Heartfelt thanks to Gen Lobzang Gyatso of Esukhia Nangten Sizhukhang and Drépung College, who provided the indispensable commentary and explanation of the text. The Tibetan text used was the one found in the edition of the Zungdü (gzungs‘dus) published by Sherig Parkhang, Dharamsala.

Special thanks to Ned Branchi for his invaluable help with the Sanskrit, mantra, and editing.

By the positive karmic potential of this translation, may all beings quickly be freed from the grip of greed, miserliness and stinginess, and become just like Jambhala, generous to all.

This translation can also be viewed on the website of the Sugatagarbha Translation Group at www.buddha-nature.com

 

Notes:

‘Exalted Jambhala’: ‘Exalted’ (Skt. ārya, Tib. ‘phags-pa) indicates that Jambhala is a being who has attained the Path of Seeing (Tib. mthong-lam), the third of the Five Paths (Skt: pañca-marga, Tib. lam lnga) ascending to enlightenment (bodhi), which in the Mahāyāna context of this text means that he is a bodhisattva abiding on at least the first bodhisattva level or higher (Skt. bhūmī, Tib. sa), which entails having had a direct non-conceptual realization of emptiness (Skt. śūnyatā, Tib. stong-pa-nyid); that is, seeing (Tib. mthong) the Truth of the Path (Skt. marga-satya, Tib. lam-bden).

‘One Who Protects from Harm/Detriment’: A literal translation of the Tibetan gnod-‘dzin, here interpreted to mean ‘safe-guarder (‘dzin) from harm (gnod)’ or ‘protector from detriment’. It is very similar to the Tibetan term for yakṣa, gnod-sbyin, literally ‘harm (gnod) giver (sbyin)’, and undoubtedly signifies another type of yakṣa, although the precise relationship is unclear. Generally speaking, the Tibetan rendering of yakṣa, gnod-sbyin or ‘harm-giver’, was definitely not a literal (nor necessarily accurate) translation of the Sanskrit term yakṣa, and the Tibetan gnod-sbyin was quite possibly a rather arbitrary designation used as a simple way of classifying a kind of Indian supernatural being mentioned frequently throughout Buddhist texts. This fact also calls the meaning and translation of gnod-‘dzin into question, especially since the original Sanskrit correlate of gnod-’dzin is unclear. However, in this text, apart from issues with its relationship to gnod-sbyin/yakṣa, gnod-‘dzin is evidently being used to describe a positive quality. Thus ‘protector from harm/detriment’, a literal translation, seems reasonable, although further research into the aforementioned is necessary. Based on the context in which it is used in this text, it would also seem that gnod-‘dzin is a more exalted or higher-status variety of yakṣa, indicated linguistically by the difference between the verbs used, sbyin and ‘dzin respectively, the first implying a more wrathful kind of being (‘harm giver’), and the second a more benevolent one (‘harm guardian’). The history of yakṣas is quite complex, and they have had various roles in the history of Indian religious traditions, since before the time of the Buddha. In Mahāyāna Buddhism they are generally portrayed as very powerful celestial beings who are somewhat volatile and militaristic, yet often inclined toward virtue and practicing the Buddhist teachings. They are perhaps somewhat like the demigods or asuras, except in that they seem to be praised as more capable than asuras of virtuous acts, such as protecting Buddhist teachings and helping their practitioners, having far-reaching miraculous abilities, and even attaining high levels of enlightenment (bodhi) and becoming bodhisattvas, such as here with Jambhala and his ‘father’ Manibhadra, or the yakṣa ‘general’ Susambhava in the Sūtra of Golden Light (suvarnaprabhāsottamasūtrendrarājaḥ-sūtra).

‘The Mind of Awakening’: Skt. bodhicitta; the mind which aspires to attain the complete awakening or full enlightenment of Buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings.

‘Son(s) of Manibhadra’: Manibhadra (Tib. nor-bzang) is one of the foremost yakṣa leaders, as well as a wealth god. He is featured in the Dhāraṇī of Manibhadra as found in the Kangyur (bka’-‘gyur, the Tibetan Buddhist canon translated from Indian languages); a translation of this text can be found on the Sugatagarbha Translations website at www.buddha-nature.com. In the present text, Jambhala is presented as being the son of this famous wealth-giving yakṣa (Tib. nor-bzang (gi) sras). It would seem that Jambhala is the foremost among a certain class of beings constituting Manibhadra’s sons, who are referred to later in the ‘Benefits’ section of the 108 Names as ‘the sons of Manibhadra’, one among of a number of classes of gods and yakṣas who protect anyone who reads the Names. Like his son Jambhala, Manibhadra also seems to be exalted (Skt. ārya, Tib. ‘phags-pa) as a bodhisattva.

‘Giver of the Supreme, Gnome, Pervasive Penetrator’: The first of these epithets, ‘Giver of the Supreme’ (Tib. mchog-sbyin) is another poetic name for Vāyu or perhaps Vāruna, Indian gods associated with wind; the second and third are poetic names for the god Viṣṇu. This would seem to indicate a connection between these gods and Jambhala, probably in terms of some of their shared qualities and characteristics. ‘Gnome’ (Tib. mi’u-thung, literally ‘short person’), usually refers to small emanations of powerful gods, such as Viṣṇu in particular, which are short in stature but mighty in magic, something perhaps akin to ‘divine leprechaun emanations’ of sorts. The term mi’u-thung can also generally refer to various gnome-like, diminutive magical beings, and in more common usage to dwarves or midgets. ‘Pervasive Penetrator’ (Tib. khyab-‘jug-pa) is one of the most frequent Tibetan names for Viṣṇu, and even more so for his devotees, the Vaiṣṇavas.

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