The Extremely Concise ‘Dispelling the Faults of Interdependence’, from the Treasure Teachings of Tertön Sögyel

The Extremely Concise ‘Dispelling the Faults of Interdependence’

(rten ‘brel nyes sel shin tu bsdus pa)

 

from the Treasure Teachings of Tertön Sögyel

(gter ston bsod rgyal)

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

OṂ: CH’OK-DÜ DÉ-SHEK S’AY-CHAY KYI

OṂ: The Great Identity of the Sugatas of all directions and times,

DAK-NYIY CH’EN-PO PAY-MA-JUNG

Together with their Bodhisattva Heirs, Padmasambhava;

GYU-T’RUL GYÜ DANG DÜ-PA DO

The Tantra of the Web of Magical Illusion (Māyājāla Tantra1), the Sūtra Which Gathers All Innermost Intentions (Düpa Do2),

GONG-DÜ KA-GYAY LHA-TS’OK KYI

The Embodiment of the Master’s Realization (Lama Gongdü3) and the Eight Sādhanā Teachings of the Heruka (Kagyay4):

JIN-LAP T’UK-JÉ DEN-TOP KYIY

By the power of the truth of the blessings and compassion of their Deity Assemblies,

NYEY-TS’OK NAM-YANG MEY-PAR DZÖ

Please ensure that accrued faults are forever destroyed.

OṂ VAJRA GURU PADMA ŚĀNTIṂ KRODHA GUHYA JÑĀNA RULU RULU GURU DEVA ḌĀKINĪ MAHĀ ŚRĪ HERUKA SARVA SAMAYA HŪṂ PHAT

[Tibetan pronunciation:

OṂ BADZRA GURU PAYMA SHĀNTING KRODHA GUHYA DZÑĀNA RULU RULU GURU DEWA ḌĀKINĪ MAHĀ SHRĪ HERUKA SARBA SAMAYA NG

PHAYT]

TEN-DREL NYEY-TS’OK T’AM-CHAY: SHANTING KURU SWĀHĀ

All accrued faults of interdependence: ŚANTIṂ KURU SVĀHĀ.

From Dispelling the Faults of Interdependence (rten ‘brel nyes sel).

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October to late November 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India.)

1 sgyu ‘phrul drwa ba’i brgyud (the Guhyagarbha Tantra and other related Mahāyoga tantra-s).

2 ‘dus pa mdo, AKA Do Gongpa Düpa (Wyl. mdo dgongs pa ‘dus pa), The Sūtra which Gathers All Intentions, AKA Tsokchen Düpa (tshogs chen ‘dus pa) — the principal text of the Anuyoga, which is part of the kama tradition. It consists of 75 chapters and was translated from the ‘language of Gilgit’ by Chetsün Kyé [sic], a native of Gilgit, in the late 8th or early 9th century. The Anuyoga tantras were brought to Tibet by Nupchen Sangyay Yéshey [gnubs chen sangs rgyas ye shes].

3 dgongs ‘dus (bla ma dgongs ‘dus). A large cycle of gterma (hidden treasure teachings) revealed by Sanggyay Lingpa (sangs rgyas gling pa, 1340-96) in 18 volumes of approximately 700 pages each.

4 bka’ brgyad, or Drubpa Kagyay (Skt. aṣṭamahāsādhana; Wyl. sgrub pa bka’ brgyad; Eng. ‘the Eight [Great] Sādhanā Teachings’) — the term ‘Kagyay’ refers to the eight (Tib. brgyad) sets of Mahāyoga teachings or transmissions (bka‘) entrusted to Padmasambhava and the eight Vidyādharas of India.

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The Concise Dhāraṇī Ritual for Purifying Offerings

The Concise Dhāraṇī Ritual for Purifying Offerings

(yon sbyong bsdus pa)

from the Kangyur (bka’ ‘gyur), the Tibetan Buddhist Canon

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

CHOM-DEN-DAY DÉ-ZHIN-SHEK-PA DRA-CHOM-PA YANG-DAK-PAR DZOK-PA’Y SANG-GYAY KÜN-NAY Ö-KYI GYEL-PO MÉ-Ö RAP-TU SEL-WA LA CH’AK-TS’EL LO

I pay homage to the Bhagavān, the Tathāgata, the Arhat, the Samyaksabuddha, Powerfully Illuminating Fire Light King of Universal Light.

[The Dhāraṇī:]

NAMAH SAMANTABHADRA RĀJĀYA/ TATHĀGATĀYA/ ARHATE/ SAMYAKSABUDDHAYA/ NAMO MAÑJUŚRĪKUMĀRABHŪTĀYA/ BODHISATTVAYA/ MAHĀSATTVAYA/ MAHĀKĀRUIKĀYA/ TADYATHĀ/ O NIRĀLABHE/ NIRĀBHĀSE/ JAYE JAYE LABBHE/ MAHĀMATE/ DAKE DAKII MEPARI ŚODHAYA SVĀHĀ

[Tibetan pronunciation:

NAMAH SAMANTABHADRA RĀDZĀYA/ TATHĀGATĀYA/ ARHATE/ SAMYAKSAṂBUDDHAYA/ NAMO MAÑJUSHRĪKUMĀRABHŪTĀYA/ BODHISATTWAYA/ MAHĀSATTWAYA/ MAHĀKĀRUṆIKĀYA/ TADYATHĀ/ OṂ NIRĀLAṂBHE/ NIRĀBHĀSE/ DZAYE DZAYE LABBHE/ MAHĀMATE/ DAKSHE DAKSHIṆI MEPARI SHODHAYA SWĀHĀ]

It is taught in the Tantra of Detailed Ascertainment of Training (‘dul ba rnam par nges pa’i rgyud1) that by reciting this Dhāraṇī just one time, alms, [even] equal to the size of Mount Meru, will be thoroughly purified.

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India.)

1 In Sanskrit, perhaps vinaya-viniścaya-tantra

The Concise Smoke Offering Ritual, by Trulzhik Rinpoché, Ngawang Chökyi Lodrö

The Concise Smoke Offering Ritual

(gsur mchod mdor bsdus bzhugs)

 

by Trulzhik Rinpoché, Ngawang Chökyi Lodrö

(‘khrul zhig rin po che ngag dbang chos kyi blo gros, 1924-2011)

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

Chant RA YA KHA, OĀH HŪ, O MAI PADME HŪṂ, the Hundred Syllable Mantra [of Avalokiteśvara] and the like. Afterward [recite]:

DRU-DRUK NÜ-T’Ü DRI-SUR KÜN-ZANG TRIN

Through the power of the Six Syllables [of O MAI PADME HŪṂ], Samantabhadra’s clouds of scented smoke offering,

KÖN-CH’OK CH’Ö-DRÖN GÖN-PO YÖN-TEN DRÖN

Are dedicated to the Supreme Gems – the guests of offering, the Guardians – the guests of good qualities,

RIK-DRUK NYING-JÉ LHAK-MA’Y DRÖN LA-SOK

The beings of the six realms – the remaining guests of compassion and the rest;

LEN-CH’AK SHA-KHÖN NYER-WA YONG LA NGO

And to all those who seek karmic retribution and vengeance, in their entirety.

GYEY KONG DÖ TS’IM CH’OK-T’ÜN NGÖ-DRUP KYI

May the fruition of virtue: Becoming fulfilled with delight, having wishes fulfilled, and achieving supreme and common spiritual attainments (siddhi),

GÉ’N-DRAY KHOR-SUM MI-MIK NGANG DU NGO

Be dedicated within the state free from fixation on the three spheres [of subject, object, and interaction between them].

And thus, so it was that this was offered as a small supplement to the speech of Künzang T’ongdröl Dorjé (Terchen Trulshik Dongak Lingpa, kun bzang mthong grol rdo rje), by Vāgindra Dharma[-mati] (wa gindra dharma [ma ti]).

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October to late November 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India. Minor revisions made on 12/24/2017.)

The Concise Red Scented Smoke Offering [Marsur], by Düdjom Rinpoché, Jikdrel Yéshey Dorjé

The Concise Red Scented Smoke Offering [Marsur]

(dmar gsur mdor bsdus)

 

by Düdjom Rinpoché, Jikdrel Yéshey Dorjé

(bdud ‘joms rin po che ‘jigs bral ye shes rdo rje, 1904-1987)

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

The concise Red Scented Smoke Offering [Marsur] is as follows:

 

OṂ ĀH HŪNG: T’OK-MEY NGAR-DZIN BAK-CH’AK KYIY

OĀH HŪ: Through habitual tendencies of ego-grasping since beginningless time,

DUK-NGA T’RUK-PA’Y RANG-ZUK NI

The very embodiment of disturbance by the five poisons –

GYEL-GONG DAM-S’I MO-DRÉ SOK

The king spirits, vow-corrupting demons, female ghosts and the like,

DOM-SHOR DAM-NYAM NÖ SEM-CHEN

Sentient beings who break vows, violate commitments and cause harm,

TAK-TU ZHEN LA TS’É-JEY CHING

Who always act violently toward others,

NAM-KAR DRUP LA BAR-DU-CHÖ

And who create obstacles to the practice of pure virtue,

LO-GYUR KHOR T’AP P’Ü NA-DREN

Who manipulate minds, cause conflict in assemblies, drive away and lead on,

ZAY NOR LONG-CHÖ PEL LA KU

Who steal food, wealth, resources and glory;

CH’I-ZHIN DRANG-WA’Y GAP-DRÉ’Y RIK

The varieties of hidden ghosts who follow after in pursuit:

LEN-CH’AK DRÖN-GYUR T’AM-CHAY LA

For all those who are guests of karmic obligations,

SHA T’RAK LA-SOK KHO-GU’I TS’OK

This gathering of all that is needed, such as flesh and blood,

DÖ-GUR CH’AR-WA’Y DRI-SUR TRIN

Clouds of the Scented Smoke Offering, arising as everything desired,

NAM-KHA DZÖ DU TRÖ JAY TÉ

Emanate as the treasury of space;

P’AM-GYEL T’AP-TSÖ MEY-PAR NGO

And thus are dedicated without loss and gain, conflict and strife.

GA-GU YI-RANG TS’IM GYUR NAY

May this bring about joyful gladness, rejoicing and satisfaction,

BU-LÖN LEN-CH’AK SHA-KHÖN JANG

Purify debts, karmic obligations and enmities,

GYÜ LA JANG-CH’UP SEM KYEY TÉ

Cause them to generate Bodhicitta in their mental continua;

T’AR-PA’Y DÉ-WA T’OP GYUR CHIK

And thereby bring the attainment of liberation’s bliss.

DEN-NYIY LU-WA-MEY-PA’Y T’Ü

By the power of the infallible Two Truths,

MÖN-LAM YONG-SU DRUP-PAR SHOK

May these aspiration prayers be thoroughly accomplished.

And with that, perform the giving of Dharma (chos sbyin), dedications and the like.

And so it was that this was composed by Jikdrel Yéshey Dorjé (Düdjom Rinpoché, ‘jig bral ye shes rdo rje) at the request of Trulshik Dorjé (Trulshik Rinpoché, ‘khrul shig rdo rje).

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India. Minor revisions made on December 24th 2017.)

On the Long Life Arrows of Māratika Cave [The Silken Arrows of Longevity], by Māratika Dungdzin Rinpoché, Ngawang Jikdrel Chökyi Wangchuk

On the Long Life Arrows of Māratika Cave

[The Silken Arrows of Longevity]

 

by Māratika Dungdzin Rinpoché,

Ngawang Jikdrel Chökyi Wangchuk

(maa ra tik ka’i mdung ‘dzin rin po che ngag dbang ‘jigs bral chos kyi dbang phyug)

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

Regarding the Silken Arrows of Longevity (or Long Life Arrows, mda’ dar), which are prepared according to the traditional practice of longevity rituals (mthong brgyud phyag len) of Māratika Cave1, and which are made out of the Bamboo of Longevity (tshe smyug) from that selfsame supreme sacred site [of Māratika Cave]: They are assembled according to reliable texts [of instruction]; and are made with the traditional practice of longevity rituals and so on. They [the arrows themselves] are constructed from the material of precious white metal (rgyu rin chen ltung); and inside them rests the Bamboo of Longevity, imbued with blessings, which grows at the sacred site of Māratika.

In general, the Silken Arrows of Longevity are made to be endowed with excellent bamboo cane, of three, seven, nine or thirteen joints; whichever is suitable. Thereupon are bound silks of five-fold color; while at their tip, a vulture feather of four sides is affixed, and a mirror and small turquoise at their bottom. The base is set in the shape of a spear.

As for the meaning of their symbolism: The three joints [of the bamboo] and so on represent the Three Vehicles (yāna-s)2, [the seven joints represent] the Seven Good Qualities of the Higher Realms3, [the nine joints represent] the Stages of the Nine Vehicles, and the thirteen [joints represent] the Ten [Bodhisattva] Levels of the Great Vehicle [Mahāyāna] and the Three Bodies of Awakening (kāya-s) [thus making thirteen combined]. The five-colored silks are the Ḍākinīs of the Five Families [of Buddhas], the Five Deep Wisdoms (jñāna-s), and the Five Awakened Activities. The vulture feather at the tip is the realization of the highest ultimate view of unchanging true reality; and of never meeting defeat by any opposition whatsoever. The mirror is the dawning of the outer universe and its inner inhabitants in the three realms, in their entirety, as vivid and distinct. The turquoise is the Life-Energy Stone of Humanity (mi yi bla rdo), and it is said to be capable of healing the drifting and dissipation of life-energy and longevity; owing to the profound rituals of Secret Mantra [Vajrayāna]. The base which rests firmly and steadily has the meaning of unchanging longevity and life-force; and the bamboo cane which is straight and supple has the meaning of always and ever abiding within the faith of trusting in the Supreme Gems [the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha] and in karmic causality, by authentically dwelling on the path of the Ten Virtues.

And thus, as for this work regarding the Silken Arrows of Longevity from the great sacred site of Māratika Cave, which are accomplished through reliable texts [of instruction] and the traditional practice of longevity rituals and so on, written by the Lineage Holder (gdung ‘dzin) of Chimey Takten Chöling Monastery (‘chi med rtag brtan chos gling mgon), ngawang Jikdrel Chökyi Wangchuk (ngag dbang ‘jigs bral chos kyi dbang phyug), by the virtue of spreading this in the supreme support of pilgrimage to the sacred site [of Māratika], may all living beings become rich in the glory of longevity, prosperity and all that is desired; and thereby may it become a cause for freely enjoying the virtuous signs of the benefit and welfare of the Teachings and beings. SIDDHI RASTU.

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October to late November 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India. Completed on December 16th 2017. Minor revisions made on December 24th 2017.)

1 Māratika Cave (Skt. Māratika; Tib. མཱ་ར་ཏི་ཀ་, འཆི་བ་མཐར་བྱེད་, Wyl. ‘chi ba mthar byed): The rocky caverns where Padmasambhava attained the level of a Vidyādhara [Knowledge Holder] with Power Over Longevity (tshe la dbang ba’i rig ‘dzin), through his practice with his consort Mandāravā (who was probably a princess from Himachal Pradesh, India). It is thought to be the cave of Haileshi in Sagarmatha, Nepal. A traditional biography of Padmasambhava says: “Returning to Zahor, Padmasambhava took the royal princess Mandāravā as his consort, and they then went to the Māratika Cave, where for three months they practiced the Sādhanā of Longevity. The Buddha of Limitless Life, Amitāyus appeared, empowered them with longevity, and blessed them as inseparable from him. They both accomplished the second Vidyādhara level, ‘Vidyādhara with Mastery Over Life’. [Edited from the Rigpa Wiki article.]

From the ‘About’ section of the Māratika Monastery website (www.MaratikaMonastery.org): Māratika Cave, in eastern Nepal, is the sacred place where Guru Padmasambhava and Princess Mandāravā accomplished the state of Immortal Awareness Holder (‘chi med rig ‘dzin). In the wisdom tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, Māratika is counted among the six most holy places of our world.

Introduction and Historical Background: Māratika, or ‘chi ba thar byed in Tibetan, means “liberating from death”, and is also known as Halesi, or “literally astonishing”. The place is rich in history, mythology and sacred geology, and despite its great isolation, it is a major holy place for both Buddhists and Hindus. For Tibetan Buddhists in particular, it is the site of immortality, one of the six supreme pilgrimage sites in the world. It is the place where the great master, the second Buddha Padmasambhava, and Ḍākinī Mandāravā obtained the realization of immortal life. Māratika was also blessed by the Family of Three Protectors: Mañjuśrī, Vajrapāṇi and Avalokiteśvara. For many years, the sacred cave of Māratika has been a very important pilgrimage destination for Buddhists seeking to engage in the long life or longevity practices. Due to its historical connection with Padmasambhava, the Lotus Born Guru, and the Family of Three Protectors, it is particularly sacred within the Rimey or Non-Sectarian movement of Tibetan Buddhism in general, and within the Vajrayāna vehicle in particular.


Legend has it that Guru Padmasambhava first subdued the demons of the Lord of the Death, before engaging in a three month long meditation retreat in the central cave at Māratika, on the practice of the deity Amit
āyus, the Buddha of Boundless Life. The aforementioned deity appeared directly to Guru Padmasambhava, bestowing the Empowerment of Long Life; and thereupon Guru Rinpoche accomplished the level of a Vidyādhara with Mastery Over Longevity, beyond death and birth; the signs of which are still visible in the cave to this day.

The greater region is made up of three holy mountains, the central smaller of which is known as Avalokiteśvara Mountain, and which houses the two main caves themselves. Above it, next to the caves’ entrance, is Māratika Chimey Takten Chöling Monastery. On either side of Avalokiteśvara Mountain stand Vajrapāṇi Mountain to the south, and Mañjuśrī Mountain to the north; making up the trio of the “Family of Three Protectors”, or rig sums mgon po in Tibetan.

To highlight the importance of this holy place, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has stated, “Due to the accumulation of pure virtue, just through seeing, hearing, remembering and touching this place, the two obscurations of sentient beings [of emotions and concepts] will be quickly purified, one will be looked after by the All-Knowing One (the great master Padmasambhava); and will easily attain the state of omniscience.”

To quote His Holiness Düdjom Rinpoché, “Indirectly devoted and fortunate people in the future will gain a positive karmic link merely by visiting this place, making prostrations, worshiping or respecting it. They will have the obstacles of this life pacified, all their wishes will be fulfilled; and ultimately they will be accepted by Guru Padmasambhava and his Consort. And this will be attained certainly, infallibly. Anyone who makes a connection, through either seeing or hearing about Māratika, comes to appreciate the value of a long life, in these dark ages when lifespan is short and diseases are many. If other devoted people could make offerings to it, according to how they feel, as drops of water gathered in the ocean, they too will definitely obtain a share of the Spiritual Attainment (siddhi) and merit of long life”.

THE MEANING OF “MĀRATIKA”: Māratika in Tibetan is translated as ‘chi ba mthar byed, which means “the cave of overcoming, destroying or bringing an end to death”. Because Padmasambhava achieved a level of power beyond birth and death in Māratika, the name of this place became known as ‘Māratika’. Several hidden treasure teachings (gter ma) such as those by Nyangrel Nyima Özer (nyang ral nyi ma ‘od zer), Sangye Lingpa (sangs rgyas gling pa), and others include references to ‘Māratika’.

THE MEANING OF ‘HALESHE’: When the Tibetan King Trisong Déutsen (khri srong lde’u btsan) was building the glorious Samyay Monastery (bsam yas mgon pa), what they constructed during the day was destroyed by demons during the night. King Trisong Déutsen sent his minister, Nanam Dorjé Düdjom (sna nam rdo rje bdud ‘joms), to India to invite Padmasambhava, the great Tantric practitioner who held the power of all Buddhas of the past, present and future.

Padmasambhava, accepting the King’s invitation, was returning to Tibet with Nanam Dorjé Düdjom, when while passing through Nepal they arrived at Halayshö (ha las bshod), which literally means “to describe the experience of astonishment”. Stopping here to take rest, the minister was so surprised by simply being there at the site of the holy mountain, that he turned to Guru Rinpoché and asked: “Why is this mountain so astonishing?”. Padmasambhava then revealed to him the Outer, Inner and Secret explanations of the marvels concerning the sacred place. Thus, as Māratika came to be known as ‘Halayshö’, ‘Halayshay’ (ha las bshad) or “Halayshen” in the Tibetan language; and gradually became ‘Halesi’ in the local language of Nepali.” [Edited by Erick Tsiknopoulos.]

2Hinayāna, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna.

3The Seven Good Qualities of the Higher Realms (mtho ris kyi yon tan bdun): 1) long life (or longevity, tshe ring ba), 2) freedom from illness (or good health, nad med pa), 3) excellent form (or good body, gzugs bzang ba), 4) excellent fortune (skal pa bzang ba), 5) high family (or status, rigs mtho ba), 6) much wealth (or abundant resources, nor mang ba), and 7) great discerning insight (or wisdom, shes rab che ba).

The Supplication to Lord Trulzhik Nga’wang Chökyi Lodrö [Trulzhik Rinpoché], by Trulzhik Rinpoché, Nga’wang Chökyi Lodrö [Himself]

The Supplication to Lord Trulzhik Nga’wang Chökyi Lodrö

[Trulzhik Rinpoché]

(rje ‘khrul zhig ngag dbang chos kyi blo gros chog gi gsol ‘debs)

 

by Trulzhik Rinpoché, Nga’wang Chökyi Lodrö [Himself]

(‘khrul zhig rin po che ngag dbang chos kyi blo gros, 1924-2011)

 

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

NAM-PAR-NANG-DZAY NGAK LA WANG-GYUR GAR

Dance of Vairocana, who held mastery over speech,

DAM-PA’Y CH’Ö KYI DZÖ DZIN KÜN-GA-WO

Upholder of the treasury of Transcendent Dharma, Ānanda,

GYU-T’RUL LO-DRÖ MI-ZAY TER-DZÖ JÉ

Magical display of Akṣayamati [Inexhaustible Intellect], lord of the treasure trove:

PEL-DEN LA-MA’Y ZHAP LA SÖL-WA DEP

I supplicate at the feet of the glorious Guru.

And thus, in response to the request of Kulung Nga’wang Sönam (ku lung ngag dbang bsod nams), along with [offerings of] representations of Awakened Body, Speech and Mind, this was composed by Vāgindra Dharmamati (wa gin dra dharma ma ti).

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October to late November 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India.)

The Supplication to Terchen Trulzhik Dongak Lingpa, by Terchen Trulzhik Dongak Lingpa [Himself]

The Supplication to Terchen Trulzhik Dongak Lingpa

(gter chen ‘khrul zhig mdo sngags gling pa’i gsol ‘debs)

by Terchen Trulzhik Dongak Lingpa [Himself]

(gter chen ‘khrul zhig mdo sngags gling pa, 1862-1922)

Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos

 

TS’É DI’I JA-WA MI-LAM GYU-MA TAR

Seeing the activities of this life to be like dreams and illusions,

T’ONG NAY ZHEN-PA TING LOK JA TANG-WA

You deeply turned away from grasping, and cast aside worldly activities;

T’U-TOP SANG-DAK MI YI ZUK SU TRUL

The mighty and powerful Lord of Secrets [Vajrapāṇi], incarnated in human form:

KÜN-ZANG T’ONG-DRÖL DOR-JÉR SÖL-WA DEP

To the Universally Excellent Vajra Who Liberates Upon Seeing (Künzang T’ongdröl Dorjé), I supplicate.

This was personally authored by Künzang T’ongdröl Dorjé (Terchen Trulzhik Dongak Lingpa, kun bzang mthong grol rdo rje).

(Translated from the Tibetan by Erick Tsiknopoulos, late October-late November 2017, in the village of Rakkar, near Dharamshala, India.)